Nasal & Sinus Anatomy

The Nasal Septum

The nasal septum is the dividing wall between the right and left nasal cavities. The nasal septum is made up of cartilage and bone. The quadrangular cartilage makes up the front part of the nasal septum, and the ethmoid and vomer bones make up the paper-thin back part of the septum.
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The Nasal Turbinates

The nasal turbinates are sets of three swellings on the side of both the right and left nasal cavity that help to humidify and heat the air entering the nose and to ensure smooth laminar (straight) airflow through the nasal cavity. There are inferior, middle, and superior turbinates.
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The Nasal Sinuses

The nasal sinuses are air-filled chambers within the bones of our face that drain into the nasal cavity. The sinuses are lined by mucosa, which is a thin lining that secretes mucus. There are four paired sinuses, named according to the bones in which they lie.
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Lacrimal System

The eyes are moisturized by a constant flow of tears produced by the lacrimal gland, which lies above each eye under the upper eyelid. These tears lubricate the cornea of the eye, preventing injury and ulceration. The tears are collected by the superior and inferior puncta, two small holes in the upper and lower eyelid.
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The Eustachian Tube

The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the back of the nose. It equalizes pressure between the ear and the outside world. When a person yawns or swallows, the eustachian tube dilates and this prompts pressure equalization.
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Nasal & Sinus Anatomy Guide

A complete guide to nasal & sinus anatomy from renowned Beverly Hills ENT, Dr. Arthur Wu.

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